# Hyper-Parameters#

This page lists the **learners** (i.e. learning algorithms) and their respective
hyper-parameters. Hyper-parameters can be set in one of two ways:

With a training protobuffer configuration. This option is recommanded for the CLI and C++ APIs. For example:

```
learner: "RANDOM_FOREST"
[yggdrasil_decision_forests.model.random_forest.proto.random_forest_config] {
num_trees: 1000
}
```

With a list of generic hyper-parameters i.e. a list of key values. This option is recommanded for the Python / TF-DF API. In the case of the TF-DF API, the generic hyper-parameters can be feed through the model constructor. For example:

```
model = tfdf.keras.RandomForestModel(num_trees=1000)
```

## GRADIENT_BOOSTED_TREES#

A GBT (Gradient Boosted [Decision] Tree; https://statweb.stanford.edu/~jhf/ftp/trebst.pdf) is a set of shallow decision trees trained sequentially. Each tree is trained to predict and then “correct” for the errors of the previously trained trees (more precisely each tree predict the gradient of the loss relative to the model output). GBTs use early stopping to avoid overfitting.

### Training configuration#

Following are the protobuffer definitions used in TrainingConfiguration to set learner hyper-parameters.

### Hyper-parameter templates#

Following are the hyper-parameter templates. Those are hyper-parameter
configurations that are generally before better than the default hyper-parameter
values. You can copy them manually in your training config (CLI and C++ API), or
use the `hyperparameter_template`

argument (TensorFlow Decision Forests).

**better_default@1**

A configuration that is generally better than the default parameters without being more expensive.

`growing_strategy`

: BEST_FIRST_GLOBAL

**benchmark_rank1@1**

Top ranking hyper-parameters on our benchmark slightly modified to run in reasonable time.

`growing_strategy`

: BEST_FIRST_GLOBAL`categorical_algorithm`

: RANDOM`split_axis`

: SPARSE_OBLIQUE`sparse_oblique_normalization`

: MIN_MAX`sparse_oblique_num_projections_exponent`

: 1

### Generic Hyper-parameters#

#### adapt_subsample_for_maximum_training_duration#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseControl how the maximum training duration (if set) is applied. If false, the training stop when the time is used. If true, the size of the sampled datasets used train individual trees are adapted dynamically so that all the trees are trained in time.

#### allow_na_conditions#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseIf true, the tree training evaluates conditions of the type

`X is NA`

i.e.`X is missing`

.

#### apply_link_function#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseIf true, applies the link function (a.k.a. activation function), if any, before returning the model prediction. If false, returns the pre-link function model output.

For example, in the case of binary classification, the pre-link function output is a logic while the post-link function is a probability.

#### categorical_algorithm#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**CART**Possible values:**CART, ONE_HOT, RANDOMHow to learn splits on categorical attributes.

-`CART`

: CART algorithm. Find categorical splits of the form “value \in mask”. The solution is exact for binary classification, regression and ranking. It is approximated for multi-class classification. This is a good first algorithm to use. In case of overfitting (very small dataset, large dictionary), the “random” algorithm is a good alternative.

-`ONE_HOT`

: One-hot encoding. Find the optimal categorical split of the form “attribute == param”. This method is similar (but more efficient) than converting converting each possible categorical value into a boolean feature. This method is available for comparison purpose and generally performs worse than other alternatives.

-`RANDOM`

: Best splits among a set of random candidate. Find the a categorical split of the form “value \in mask” using a random search. This solution can be seen as an approximation of the CART algorithm. This method is a strong alternative to CART. This algorithm is inspired from section “5.1 Categorical Variables” of “Random Forest”, 2001.

#### categorical_set_split_greedy_sampling#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.1**Possible values:**min:0 max:1For categorical set splits e.g. texts. Probability for a categorical value to be a candidate for the positive set. The sampling is applied once per node (i.e. not at every step of the greedy optimization).

#### categorical_set_split_max_num_items#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**-1**Possible values:**min:-1For categorical set splits e.g. texts. Maximum number of items (prior to the sampling). If more items are available, the least frequent items are ignored. Changing this value is similar to change the “max_vocab_count” before loading the dataset, with the following exception: With

`max_vocab_count`

, all the remaining items are grouped in a special Out-of-vocabulary item. With`max_num_items`

, this is not the case.

#### categorical_set_split_min_item_frequency#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**1**Possible values:**min:1For categorical set splits e.g. texts. Minimum number of occurrences of an item to be considered.

#### compute_permutation_variable_importance#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseIf true, compute the permutation variable importance of the model at the end of the training using the validation dataset. Enabling this feature can increase the training time significantly.

#### dart_dropout#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.01**Possible values:**min:0 max:1Dropout rate applied when using the DART i.e. when forest_extraction=DART.

#### early_stopping#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**LOSS_INCREASE**Possible values:**NONE, MIN_LOSS_FINAL, LOSS_INCREASEEarly stopping detects the overfitting of the model and halts it training using the validation dataset controlled by

`validation_ratio`

.

-`NONE`

: No early stopping. The model is trained entirely.

-`MIN_LOSS_FINAL`

: No early stopping. However, the model is then truncated to minimize the validation loss.

-`LOSS_INCREASE`

: Stop the training when the validation does not decrease for`early_stopping_num_trees_look_ahead`

trees.

#### early_stopping_initial_iteration#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**10**Possible values:**min:00-based index of the first iteration considered for early stopping computation. Increasing this value prevents too early stopping due to noisy initial iterations of the learner.

#### early_stopping_num_trees_look_ahead#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**30**Possible values:**min:1Rolling number of trees used to detect validation loss increase and trigger early stopping.

#### focal_loss_alpha#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.5**Possible values:**min:0 max:1EXPERIMENTAL. Weighting parameter for focal loss, positive samples weighted by alpha, negative samples by (1-alpha). The default 0.5 value means no active class-level weighting. Only used with focal loss i.e.

`loss="BINARY_FOCAL_LOSS"`

#### focal_loss_gamma#

**Type:**Real**Default:**2**Possible values:**min:0EXPERIMENTAL. Exponent of the misprediction exponent term in focal loss, corresponds to gamma parameter in https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.02002.pdf. Only used with focal loss i.e.

`loss="BINARY_FOCAL_LOSS"`

#### forest_extraction#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**MART**Possible values:**MART, DARTHow to construct the forest:

- MART: For Multiple Additive Regression Trees. The “classical” way to build a GBDT i.e. each tree tries to “correct” the mistakes of the previous trees.

- DART: For Dropout Additive Regression Trees. A modification of MART proposed in http://proceedings.mlr.press/v38/korlakaivinayak15.pdf. Here, each tree tries to “correct” the mistakes of a random subset of the previous trees.

#### goss_alpha#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.2**Possible values:**min:0 max:1Alpha parameter for the GOSS (Gradient-based One-Side Sampling; “See LightGBM: A Highly Efficient Gradient Boosting Decision Tree”) sampling method.

#### goss_beta#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.1**Possible values:**min:0 max:1Beta parameter for the GOSS (Gradient-based One-Side Sampling) sampling method.

#### growing_strategy#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**LOCAL**Possible values:**LOCAL, BEST_FIRST_GLOBALHow to grow the tree.

-`LOCAL`

: Each node is split independently of the other nodes. In other words, as long as a node satisfy the splits “constraints (e.g. maximum depth, minimum number of observations), the node will be split. This is the “classical” way to grow decision trees.

-`BEST_FIRST_GLOBAL`

: The node with the best loss reduction among all the nodes of the tree is selected for splitting. This method is also called “best first” or “leaf-wise growth”. See “Best-first decision tree learning”, Shi and “Additive logistic regression : A statistical view of boosting”, Friedman for more details.

#### honest#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseIn honest trees, different training examples are used to infer the structure and the leaf values. This regularization technique trades examples for bias estimates. It might increase or reduce the quality of the model. See “Generalized Random Forests”, Athey et al. In this paper, Honest trees are trained with the Random Forest algorithm with a sampling without replacement.

#### honest_fixed_separation#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseFor honest trees only i.e. honest=true. If true, a new random separation is generated for each tree. If false, the same separation is used for all the trees (e.g., in Gradient Boosted Trees containing multiple trees).

#### honest_ratio_leaf_examples#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.5**Possible values:**min:0 max:1For honest trees only i.e. honest=true. Ratio of examples used to set the leaf values.

#### in_split_min_examples_check#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseWhether to check the

`min_examples`

constraint in the split search (i.e. splits leading to one child having less than`min_examples`

examples are considered invalid) or before the split search (i.e. a node can be derived only if it contains more than`min_examples`

examples). If false, there can be nodes with less than`min_examples`

training examples.

#### keep_non_leaf_label_distribution#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseWhether to keep the node value (i.e. the distribution of the labels of the training examples) of non-leaf nodes. This information is not used during serving, however it can be used for model interpretation as well as hyper parameter tuning. This can take lots of space, sometimes accounting for half of the model size.

#### l1_regularization#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0**Possible values:**min:0L1 regularization applied to the training loss. Impact the tree structures and lead values.

#### l2_categorical_regularization#

**Type:**Real**Default:**1**Possible values:**min:0L2 regularization applied to the training loss for categorical features. Impact the tree structures and lead values.

#### l2_regularization#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0**Possible values:**min:0L2 regularization applied to the training loss for all features except the categorical ones.

#### lambda_loss#

**Type:**Real**Default:**1**Possible values:**min:0Lambda regularization applied to certain training loss functions. Only for NDCG loss.

#### loss#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**DEFAULT**Possible values:**DEFAULT, BINOMIAL_LOG_LIKELIHOOD, SQUARED_ERROR, MULTINOMIAL_LOG_LIKELIHOOD, LAMBDA_MART_NDCG5, XE_NDCG_MART, BINARY_FOCAL_LOSS, POISSONThe loss optimized by the model. If not specified (DEFAULT) the loss is selected automatically according to the “task” and label statistics. For example, if task=CLASSIFICATION and the label has two possible values, the loss will be set to BINOMIAL_LOG_LIKELIHOOD. Possible values are:

-`DEFAULT`

: Select the loss automatically according to the task and label statistics.

-`BINOMIAL_LOG_LIKELIHOOD`

: Binomial log likelihood. Only valid for binary classification.

-`SQUARED_ERROR`

: Least square loss. Only valid for regression.

-`POISSON`

: Poisson log likelihood loss. Mainly used for counting problems. Only valid for regression.

-`MULTINOMIAL_LOG_LIKELIHOOD`

: Multinomial log likelihood i.e. cross-entropy. Only valid for binary or multi-class classification.

-`LAMBDA_MART_NDCG5`

: LambdaMART with NDCG5.

-`XE_NDCG_MART`

: Cross Entropy Loss NDCG. See arxiv.org/abs/1911.09798.

#### max_depth#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**6**Possible values:**min:-1Maximum depth of the tree.

`max_depth=1`

means that all trees will be roots. Negative values are ignored.

#### max_num_nodes#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**31**Possible values:**min:-1Maximum number of nodes in the tree. Set to -1 to disable this limit. Only available for

`growing_strategy=BEST_FIRST_GLOBAL`

.

#### maximum_model_size_in_memory_in_bytes#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1Limit the size of the model when stored in ram. Different algorithms can enforce this limit differently. Note that when models are compiled into an inference, the size of the inference engine is generally much smaller than the original model.

#### maximum_training_duration_seconds#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1Maximum training duration of the model expressed in seconds. Each learning algorithm is free to use this parameter at it sees fit. Enabling maximum training duration makes the model training non-deterministic.

#### min_examples#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**5**Possible values:**min:1Minimum number of examples in a node.

#### missing_value_policy#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**GLOBAL_IMPUTATION**Possible values:**GLOBAL_IMPUTATION, LOCAL_IMPUTATION, RANDOM_LOCAL_IMPUTATIONMethod used to handle missing attribute values.

-`GLOBAL_IMPUTATION`

: Missing attribute values are imputed, with the mean (in case of numerical attribute) or the most-frequent-item (in case of categorical attribute) computed on the entire dataset (i.e. the information contained in the data spec).

-`LOCAL_IMPUTATION`

: Missing attribute values are imputed with the mean (numerical attribute) or most-frequent-item (in the case of categorical attribute) evaluated on the training examples in the current node.

-`RANDOM_LOCAL_IMPUTATION`

: Missing attribute values are imputed from randomly sampled values from the training examples in the current node. This method was proposed by Clinic et al. in “Random Survival Forests” (https://projecteuclid.org/download/pdfview_1/euclid.aoas/1223908043).

#### num_candidate_attributes#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**-1**Possible values:**min:-1Number of unique valid attributes tested for each node. An attribute is valid if it has at least a valid split. If

`num_candidate_attributes=0`

, the value is set to the classical default value for Random Forest:`sqrt(number of input attributes)`

in case of classification and`number_of_input_attributes / 3`

in case of regression. If`num_candidate_attributes=-1`

, all the attributes are tested.

#### num_candidate_attributes_ratio#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1**Possible values:**min:-1 max:1Ratio of attributes tested at each node. If set, it is equivalent to

`num_candidate_attributes = number_of_input_features x num_candidate_attributes_ratio`

. The possible values are between ]0, and 1] as well as -1. If not set or equal to -1, the`num_candidate_attributes`

is used.

#### num_trees#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**300**Possible values:**min:1Maximum number of decision trees. The effective number of trained tree can be smaller if early stopping is enabled.

#### pure_serving_model#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseClear the model from any information that is not required for model serving. This includes debugging, model interpretation and other meta-data. The size of the serialized model can be reduced significatively (50% model size reduction is common). This parameter has no impact on the quality, serving speed or RAM usage of model serving.

#### random_seed#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**123456Random seed for the training of the model. Learners are expected to be deterministic by the random seed.

#### sampling_method#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**RANDOM**Possible values:**NONE, RANDOM, GOSS, SELGBControl the sampling of the datasets used to train individual trees.

- NONE: No sampling is applied. This is equivalent to RANDOM sampling with “subsample=1”.

- RANDOM (default): Uniform random sampling. Automatically selected if “subsample” is set.

- GOSS: Gradient-based One-Side Sampling. Automatically selected if “goss_alpha” or “goss_beta” is set.

- SELGB: Selective Gradient Boosting. Automatically selected if “selective_gradient_boosting_ratio” is set. Only valid for ranking.

#### selective_gradient_boosting_ratio#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.01**Possible values:**min:0 max:1Ratio of the dataset used to train individual tree for the selective Gradient Boosting (Selective Gradient Boosting for Effective Learning to Rank; Lucchese et al; http://quickrank.isti.cnr.it/selective-data/selective-SIGIR2018.pdf) sampling method.

#### shrinkage#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.1**Possible values:**min:0 max:1Coefficient applied to each tree prediction. A small value (0.02) tends to give more accurate results (assuming enough trees are trained), but results in larger models. Analogous to neural network learning rate.

#### sorting_strategy#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**PRESORT**Possible values:**IN_NODE, PRESORTHow are sorted the numerical features in order to find the splits

- PRESORT: The features are pre-sorted at the start of the training. This solution is faster but consumes much more memory than IN_NODE.

- IN_NODE: The features are sorted just before being used in the node. This solution is slow but consumes little amount of memory.

.

#### sparse_oblique_normalization#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**NONE**Possible values:**NONE, STANDARD_DEVIATION, MIN_MAXFor sparse oblique splits i.e.

`split_axis=SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

. Normalization applied on the features, before applying the sparse oblique projections.

-`NONE`

: No normalization.

-`STANDARD_DEVIATION`

: Normalize the feature by the estimated standard deviation on the entire train dataset. Also known as Z-Score normalization.

-`MIN_MAX`

: Normalize the feature by the range (i.e. max-min) estimated on the entire train dataset.

#### sparse_oblique_num_projections_exponent#

**Type:**Real**Default:**2**Possible values:**min:0For sparse oblique splits i.e.

`split_axis=SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

. Controls of the number of random projections to test at each node as`num_features^num_projections_exponent`

.

#### sparse_oblique_projection_density_factor#

**Type:**Real**Default:**2**Possible values:**min:0For sparse oblique splits i.e.

`split_axis=SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

. Controls of the number of random projections to test at each node as`num_features^num_projections_exponent`

.

#### sparse_oblique_weights#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**BINARY**Possible values:**BINARY, CONTINUOUSFor sparse oblique splits i.e.

`split_axis=SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

. Possible values:

-`BINARY`

: The oblique weights are sampled in {-1,1} (default).

-`CONTINUOUS`

: The oblique weights are be sampled in [-1,1].

#### split_axis#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**AXIS_ALIGNED**Possible values:**AXIS_ALIGNED, SPARSE_OBLIQUEWhat structure of split to consider for numerical features.

-`AXIS_ALIGNED`

: Axis aligned splits (i.e. one condition at a time). This is the “classical” way to train a tree. Default value.

-`SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

: Sparse oblique splits (i.e. splits one a small number of features) from “Sparse Projection Oblique Random Forests”, Tomita et al., 2020.

#### subsample#

**Type:**Real**Default:**1**Possible values:**min:0 max:1Ratio of the dataset (sampling without replacement) used to train individual trees for the random sampling method. If “subsample” is set and if “sampling_method” is NOT set or set to “NONE”, then “sampling_method” is implicitely set to “RANDOM”. In other words, to enable random subsampling, you only need to set ““subsample”.

#### uplift_min_examples_in_treatment#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**5**Possible values:**min:0For uplift models only. Minimum number of examples per treatment in a node.

#### uplift_split_score#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**KULLBACK_LEIBLER**Possible values:**KULLBACK_LEIBLER, KL, EUCLIDEAN_DISTANCE, ED, CHI_SQUARED, CS, CONSERVATIVE_EUCLIDEAN_DISTANCE, CEDFor uplift models only. Splitter score i.e. score optimized by the splitters. The scores are introduced in “Decision trees for uplift modeling with single and multiple treatments”, Rzepakowski et al. Notation:

`p`

probability / average value of the positive outcome,`q`

probability / average value in the control group.

-`KULLBACK_LEIBLER`

or`KL`

: - p log (p/q)

-`EUCLIDEAN_DISTANCE`

or`ED`

: (p-q)^2

-`CHI_SQUARED`

or`CS`

: (p-q)^2/q

#### use_goss#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, false

#### use_hessian_gain#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseUse true, uses a formulation of split gain with a hessian term i.e. optimizes the splits to minimize the variance of “gradient / hessian. Available for all losses except regression.

#### validation_interval_in_trees#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**1**Possible values:**min:1Evaluate the model on the validation set every “validation_interval_in_trees” trees. Increasing this value reduce the cost of validation and can impact the early stopping policy (as early stopping is only tested during the validation).

#### validation_ratio#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.1**Possible values:**min:0 max:1Ratio of the training dataset used to monitor the training. Require to be >0 if early stopping is enabled.

## RANDOM_FOREST#

A Random Forest (https://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~breiman/randomforest2001.pdf) is a collection of deep CART decision trees trained independently and without pruning. Each tree is trained on a random subset of the original training dataset (sampled with replacement).

The algorithm is unique in that it is robust to overfitting, even in extreme cases e.g. when there are more features than training examples.

It is probably the most well-known of the Decision Forest training algorithms.

### Training configuration#

Following are the protobuffer definitions used in TrainingConfiguration to set learner hyper-parameters.

### Hyper-parameter templates#

Following are the hyper-parameter templates. Those are hyper-parameter
configurations that are generally before better than the default hyper-parameter
values. You can copy them manually in your training config (CLI and C++ API), or
use the `hyperparameter_template`

argument (TensorFlow Decision Forests).

**better_default@1**

A configuration that is generally better than the default parameters without being more expensive.

`winner_take_all`

: true

**benchmark_rank1@1**

Top ranking hyper-parameters on our benchmark slightly modified to run in reasonable time.

`winner_take_all`

: true`categorical_algorithm`

: RANDOM`split_axis`

: SPARSE_OBLIQUE`sparse_oblique_normalization`

: MIN_MAX`sparse_oblique_num_projections_exponent`

: 1

### Generic Hyper-parameters#

#### adapt_bootstrap_size_ratio_for_maximum_training_duration#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseControl how the maximum training duration (if set) is applied. If false, the training stop when the time is used. If true, adapts the size of the sampled dataset used to train each tree such that

`num_trees`

will train within`maximum_training_duration`

. Has no effect if there is no maximum training duration specified.

#### allow_na_conditions#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseIf true, the tree training evaluates conditions of the type

`X is NA`

i.e.`X is missing`

.

#### bootstrap_size_ratio#

**Type:**Real**Default:**1**Possible values:**min:0Number of examples used to train each trees; expressed as a ratio of the training dataset size.

#### bootstrap_training_dataset#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseIf true (default), each tree is trained on a separate dataset sampled with replacement from the original dataset. If false, all the trees are trained on the entire same dataset. If bootstrap_training_dataset:false, OOB metrics are not available. bootstrap_training_dataset=false is used in “Extremely randomized trees” (https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10994-006-6226-1.pdf).

#### categorical_algorithm#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**CART**Possible values:**CART, ONE_HOT, RANDOMHow to learn splits on categorical attributes.

-`CART`

: CART algorithm. Find categorical splits of the form “value \in mask”. The solution is exact for binary classification, regression and ranking. It is approximated for multi-class classification. This is a good first algorithm to use. In case of overfitting (very small dataset, large dictionary), the “random” algorithm is a good alternative.

-`ONE_HOT`

: One-hot encoding. Find the optimal categorical split of the form “attribute == param”. This method is similar (but more efficient) than converting converting each possible categorical value into a boolean feature. This method is available for comparison purpose and generally performs worse than other alternatives.

-`RANDOM`

: Best splits among a set of random candidate. Find the a categorical split of the form “value \in mask” using a random search. This solution can be seen as an approximation of the CART algorithm. This method is a strong alternative to CART. This algorithm is inspired from section “5.1 Categorical Variables” of “Random Forest”, 2001.

#### categorical_set_split_greedy_sampling#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.1**Possible values:**min:0 max:1For categorical set splits e.g. texts. Probability for a categorical value to be a candidate for the positive set. The sampling is applied once per node (i.e. not at every step of the greedy optimization).

#### categorical_set_split_max_num_items#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**-1**Possible values:**min:-1For categorical set splits e.g. texts. Maximum number of items (prior to the sampling). If more items are available, the least frequent items are ignored. Changing this value is similar to change the “max_vocab_count” before loading the dataset, with the following exception: With

`max_vocab_count`

, all the remaining items are grouped in a special Out-of-vocabulary item. With`max_num_items`

, this is not the case.

#### categorical_set_split_min_item_frequency#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**1**Possible values:**min:1For categorical set splits e.g. texts. Minimum number of occurrences of an item to be considered.

#### compute_oob_performances#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseIf true, compute the Out-of-bag evaluation (then available in the summary and model inspector). This evaluation is a cheap alternative to cross-validation evaluation.

#### compute_oob_variable_importances#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseIf true, compute the Out-of-bag feature importance (then available in the summary and model inspector). Note that the OOB feature importance can be expensive to compute.

#### growing_strategy#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**LOCAL**Possible values:**LOCAL, BEST_FIRST_GLOBALHow to grow the tree.

-`LOCAL`

: Each node is split independently of the other nodes. In other words, as long as a node satisfy the splits “constraints (e.g. maximum depth, minimum number of observations), the node will be split. This is the “classical” way to grow decision trees.

-`BEST_FIRST_GLOBAL`

: The node with the best loss reduction among all the nodes of the tree is selected for splitting. This method is also called “best first” or “leaf-wise growth”. See “Best-first decision tree learning”, Shi and “Additive logistic regression : A statistical view of boosting”, Friedman for more details.

#### honest#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseIn honest trees, different training examples are used to infer the structure and the leaf values. This regularization technique trades examples for bias estimates. It might increase or reduce the quality of the model. See “Generalized Random Forests”, Athey et al. In this paper, Honest trees are trained with the Random Forest algorithm with a sampling without replacement.

#### honest_fixed_separation#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseFor honest trees only i.e. honest=true. If true, a new random separation is generated for each tree. If false, the same separation is used for all the trees (e.g., in Gradient Boosted Trees containing multiple trees).

#### honest_ratio_leaf_examples#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.5**Possible values:**min:0 max:1For honest trees only i.e. honest=true. Ratio of examples used to set the leaf values.

#### in_split_min_examples_check#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseWhether to check the

`min_examples`

constraint in the split search (i.e. splits leading to one child having less than`min_examples`

examples are considered invalid) or before the split search (i.e. a node can be derived only if it contains more than`min_examples`

examples). If false, there can be nodes with less than`min_examples`

training examples.

#### keep_non_leaf_label_distribution#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseWhether to keep the node value (i.e. the distribution of the labels of the training examples) of non-leaf nodes. This information is not used during serving, however it can be used for model interpretation as well as hyper parameter tuning. This can take lots of space, sometimes accounting for half of the model size.

#### max_depth#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**16**Possible values:**min:-1Maximum depth of the tree.

`max_depth=1`

means that all trees will be roots. Negative values are ignored.

#### max_num_nodes#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**31**Possible values:**min:-1Maximum number of nodes in the tree. Set to -1 to disable this limit. Only available for

`growing_strategy=BEST_FIRST_GLOBAL`

.

#### maximum_model_size_in_memory_in_bytes#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1Limit the size of the model when stored in ram. Different algorithms can enforce this limit differently. Note that when models are compiled into an inference, the size of the inference engine is generally much smaller than the original model.

#### maximum_training_duration_seconds#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1Maximum training duration of the model expressed in seconds. Each learning algorithm is free to use this parameter at it sees fit. Enabling maximum training duration makes the model training non-deterministic.

#### min_examples#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**5**Possible values:**min:1Minimum number of examples in a node.

#### missing_value_policy#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**GLOBAL_IMPUTATION**Possible values:**GLOBAL_IMPUTATION, LOCAL_IMPUTATION, RANDOM_LOCAL_IMPUTATIONMethod used to handle missing attribute values.

-`GLOBAL_IMPUTATION`

: Missing attribute values are imputed, with the mean (in case of numerical attribute) or the most-frequent-item (in case of categorical attribute) computed on the entire dataset (i.e. the information contained in the data spec).

-`LOCAL_IMPUTATION`

: Missing attribute values are imputed with the mean (numerical attribute) or most-frequent-item (in the case of categorical attribute) evaluated on the training examples in the current node.

-`RANDOM_LOCAL_IMPUTATION`

: Missing attribute values are imputed from randomly sampled values from the training examples in the current node. This method was proposed by Clinic et al. in “Random Survival Forests” (https://projecteuclid.org/download/pdfview_1/euclid.aoas/1223908043).

#### num_candidate_attributes#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**0**Possible values:**min:-1Number of unique valid attributes tested for each node. An attribute is valid if it has at least a valid split. If

`num_candidate_attributes=0`

, the value is set to the classical default value for Random Forest:`sqrt(number of input attributes)`

in case of classification and`number_of_input_attributes / 3`

in case of regression. If`num_candidate_attributes=-1`

, all the attributes are tested.

#### num_candidate_attributes_ratio#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1**Possible values:**min:-1 max:1Ratio of attributes tested at each node. If set, it is equivalent to

`num_candidate_attributes = number_of_input_features x num_candidate_attributes_ratio`

. The possible values are between ]0, and 1] as well as -1. If not set or equal to -1, the`num_candidate_attributes`

is used.

#### num_oob_variable_importances_permutations#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**1**Possible values:**min:1Number of time the dataset is re-shuffled to compute the permutation variable importances. Increasing this value increase the training time (if “compute_oob_variable_importances:true”) as well as the stability of the oob variable importance metrics.

#### num_trees#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**300**Possible values:**min:1Number of individual decision trees. Increasing the number of trees can increase the quality of the model at the expense of size, training speed, and inference latency.

#### pure_serving_model#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseClear the model from any information that is not required for model serving. This includes debugging, model interpretation and other meta-data. The size of the serialized model can be reduced significatively (50% model size reduction is common). This parameter has no impact on the quality, serving speed or RAM usage of model serving.

#### random_seed#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**123456Random seed for the training of the model. Learners are expected to be deterministic by the random seed.

#### sampling_with_replacement#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseIf true, the training examples are sampled with replacement. If false, the training samples are sampled without replacement. Only used when “bootstrap_training_dataset=true”. If false (sampling without replacement) and if “bootstrap_size_ratio=1” (default), all the examples are used to train all the trees (you probably do not want that).

#### sorting_strategy#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**PRESORT**Possible values:**IN_NODE, PRESORTHow are sorted the numerical features in order to find the splits

- PRESORT: The features are pre-sorted at the start of the training. This solution is faster but consumes much more memory than IN_NODE.

- IN_NODE: The features are sorted just before being used in the node. This solution is slow but consumes little amount of memory.

.

#### sparse_oblique_normalization#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**NONE**Possible values:**NONE, STANDARD_DEVIATION, MIN_MAXFor sparse oblique splits i.e.

`split_axis=SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

. Normalization applied on the features, before applying the sparse oblique projections.

-`NONE`

: No normalization.

-`STANDARD_DEVIATION`

: Normalize the feature by the estimated standard deviation on the entire train dataset. Also known as Z-Score normalization.

-`MIN_MAX`

: Normalize the feature by the range (i.e. max-min) estimated on the entire train dataset.

#### sparse_oblique_num_projections_exponent#

**Type:**Real**Default:**2**Possible values:**min:0For sparse oblique splits i.e.

`split_axis=SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

. Controls of the number of random projections to test at each node as`num_features^num_projections_exponent`

.

#### sparse_oblique_projection_density_factor#

**Type:**Real**Default:**2**Possible values:**min:0`split_axis=SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

. Controls of the number of random projections to test at each node as`num_features^num_projections_exponent`

.

#### sparse_oblique_weights#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**BINARY**Possible values:**BINARY, CONTINUOUSFor sparse oblique splits i.e.

`split_axis=SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

. Possible values:

-`BINARY`

: The oblique weights are sampled in {-1,1} (default).

-`CONTINUOUS`

: The oblique weights are be sampled in [-1,1].

#### split_axis#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**AXIS_ALIGNED**Possible values:**AXIS_ALIGNED, SPARSE_OBLIQUEWhat structure of split to consider for numerical features.

-`AXIS_ALIGNED`

: Axis aligned splits (i.e. one condition at a time). This is the “classical” way to train a tree. Default value.

-`SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

: Sparse oblique splits (i.e. splits one a small number of features) from “Sparse Projection Oblique Random Forests”, Tomita et al., 2020.

#### uplift_min_examples_in_treatment#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**5**Possible values:**min:0For uplift models only. Minimum number of examples per treatment in a node.

#### uplift_split_score#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**KULLBACK_LEIBLER**Possible values:**KULLBACK_LEIBLER, KL, EUCLIDEAN_DISTANCE, ED, CHI_SQUARED, CS, CONSERVATIVE_EUCLIDEAN_DISTANCE, CEDFor uplift models only. Splitter score i.e. score optimized by the splitters. The scores are introduced in “Decision trees for uplift modeling with single and multiple treatments”, Rzepakowski et al. Notation:

`p`

probability / average value of the positive outcome,`q`

probability / average value in the control group.

-`KULLBACK_LEIBLER`

or`KL`

: - p log (p/q)

-`EUCLIDEAN_DISTANCE`

or`ED`

: (p-q)^2

-`CHI_SQUARED`

or`CS`

: (p-q)^2/q

#### winner_take_all#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseControl how classification trees vote. If true, each tree votes for one class. If false, each tree vote for a distribution of classes. winner_take_all_inference=false is often preferable.

## CART#

A CART (Classification and Regression Trees) a decision tree. The non-leaf nodes contains conditions (also known as splits) while the leaf nodes contains prediction values. The training dataset is divided in two parts. The first is used to grow the tree while the second is used to prune the tree.

### Training configuration#

Following are the protobuffer definitions used in TrainingConfiguration to set learner hyper-parameters.

### Generic Hyper-parameters#

#### allow_na_conditions#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseIf true, the tree training evaluates conditions of the type

`X is NA`

i.e.`X is missing`

.

#### categorical_algorithm#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**CART**Possible values:**CART, ONE_HOT, RANDOMHow to learn splits on categorical attributes.

-`CART`

: CART algorithm. Find categorical splits of the form “value \in mask”. The solution is exact for binary classification, regression and ranking. It is approximated for multi-class classification. This is a good first algorithm to use. In case of overfitting (very small dataset, large dictionary), the “random” algorithm is a good alternative.

-`ONE_HOT`

: One-hot encoding. Find the optimal categorical split of the form “attribute == param”. This method is similar (but more efficient) than converting converting each possible categorical value into a boolean feature. This method is available for comparison purpose and generally performs worse than other alternatives.

-`RANDOM`

: Best splits among a set of random candidate. Find the a categorical split of the form “value \in mask” using a random search. This solution can be seen as an approximation of the CART algorithm. This method is a strong alternative to CART. This algorithm is inspired from section “5.1 Categorical Variables” of “Random Forest”, 2001.

#### categorical_set_split_greedy_sampling#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.1**Possible values:**min:0 max:1For categorical set splits e.g. texts. Probability for a categorical value to be a candidate for the positive set. The sampling is applied once per node (i.e. not at every step of the greedy optimization).

#### categorical_set_split_max_num_items#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**-1**Possible values:**min:-1For categorical set splits e.g. texts. Maximum number of items (prior to the sampling). If more items are available, the least frequent items are ignored. Changing this value is similar to change the “max_vocab_count” before loading the dataset, with the following exception: With

`max_vocab_count`

, all the remaining items are grouped in a special Out-of-vocabulary item. With`max_num_items`

, this is not the case.

#### categorical_set_split_min_item_frequency#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**1**Possible values:**min:1For categorical set splits e.g. texts. Minimum number of occurrences of an item to be considered.

#### growing_strategy#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**LOCAL**Possible values:**LOCAL, BEST_FIRST_GLOBALHow to grow the tree.

-`LOCAL`

: Each node is split independently of the other nodes. In other words, as long as a node satisfy the splits “constraints (e.g. maximum depth, minimum number of observations), the node will be split. This is the “classical” way to grow decision trees.

-`BEST_FIRST_GLOBAL`

: The node with the best loss reduction among all the nodes of the tree is selected for splitting. This method is also called “best first” or “leaf-wise growth”. See “Best-first decision tree learning”, Shi and “Additive logistic regression : A statistical view of boosting”, Friedman for more details.

#### honest#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseIn honest trees, different training examples are used to infer the structure and the leaf values. This regularization technique trades examples for bias estimates. It might increase or reduce the quality of the model. See “Generalized Random Forests”, Athey et al. In this paper, Honest trees are trained with the Random Forest algorithm with a sampling without replacement.

#### honest_fixed_separation#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseFor honest trees only i.e. honest=true. If true, a new random separation is generated for each tree. If false, the same separation is used for all the trees (e.g., in Gradient Boosted Trees containing multiple trees).

#### honest_ratio_leaf_examples#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.5**Possible values:**min:0 max:1For honest trees only i.e. honest=true. Ratio of examples used to set the leaf values.

#### in_split_min_examples_check#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseWhether to check the

`min_examples`

constraint in the split search (i.e. splits leading to one child having less than`min_examples`

examples are considered invalid) or before the split search (i.e. a node can be derived only if it contains more than`min_examples`

examples). If false, there can be nodes with less than`min_examples`

training examples.

#### keep_non_leaf_label_distribution#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseWhether to keep the node value (i.e. the distribution of the labels of the training examples) of non-leaf nodes. This information is not used during serving, however it can be used for model interpretation as well as hyper parameter tuning. This can take lots of space, sometimes accounting for half of the model size.

#### max_depth#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**16**Possible values:**min:-1Maximum depth of the tree.

`max_depth=1`

means that all trees will be roots. Negative values are ignored.

#### max_num_nodes#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**31**Possible values:**min:-1Maximum number of nodes in the tree. Set to -1 to disable this limit. Only available for

`growing_strategy=BEST_FIRST_GLOBAL`

.

#### maximum_model_size_in_memory_in_bytes#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1Limit the size of the model when stored in ram. Different algorithms can enforce this limit differently. Note that when models are compiled into an inference, the size of the inference engine is generally much smaller than the original model.

#### maximum_training_duration_seconds#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1Maximum training duration of the model expressed in seconds. Each learning algorithm is free to use this parameter at it sees fit. Enabling maximum training duration makes the model training non-deterministic.

#### min_examples#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**5**Possible values:**min:1Minimum number of examples in a node.

#### missing_value_policy#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**GLOBAL_IMPUTATION**Possible values:**GLOBAL_IMPUTATION, LOCAL_IMPUTATION, RANDOM_LOCAL_IMPUTATIONMethod used to handle missing attribute values.

-`GLOBAL_IMPUTATION`

: Missing attribute values are imputed, with the mean (in case of numerical attribute) or the most-frequent-item (in case of categorical attribute) computed on the entire dataset (i.e. the information contained in the data spec).

-`LOCAL_IMPUTATION`

: Missing attribute values are imputed with the mean (numerical attribute) or most-frequent-item (in the case of categorical attribute) evaluated on the training examples in the current node.

-`RANDOM_LOCAL_IMPUTATION`

: Missing attribute values are imputed from randomly sampled values from the training examples in the current node. This method was proposed by Clinic et al. in “Random Survival Forests” (https://projecteuclid.org/download/pdfview_1/euclid.aoas/1223908043).

#### num_candidate_attributes#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**0**Possible values:**min:-1Number of unique valid attributes tested for each node. An attribute is valid if it has at least a valid split. If

`num_candidate_attributes=0`

, the value is set to the classical default value for Random Forest:`sqrt(number of input attributes)`

in case of classification and`number_of_input_attributes / 3`

in case of regression. If`num_candidate_attributes=-1`

, all the attributes are tested.

#### num_candidate_attributes_ratio#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1**Possible values:**min:-1 max:1Ratio of attributes tested at each node. If set, it is equivalent to

`num_candidate_attributes = number_of_input_features x num_candidate_attributes_ratio`

. The possible values are between ]0, and 1] as well as -1. If not set or equal to -1, the`num_candidate_attributes`

is used.

#### pure_serving_model#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseClear the model from any information that is not required for model serving. This includes debugging, model interpretation and other meta-data. The size of the serialized model can be reduced significatively (50% model size reduction is common). This parameter has no impact on the quality, serving speed or RAM usage of model serving.

#### random_seed#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**123456Random seed for the training of the model. Learners are expected to be deterministic by the random seed.

#### sorting_strategy#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**PRESORT**Possible values:**IN_NODE, PRESORTHow are sorted the numerical features in order to find the splits

- PRESORT: The features are pre-sorted at the start of the training. This solution is faster but consumes much more memory than IN_NODE.

- IN_NODE: The features are sorted just before being used in the node. This solution is slow but consumes little amount of memory.

.

#### sparse_oblique_normalization#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**NONE**Possible values:**NONE, STANDARD_DEVIATION, MIN_MAXFor sparse oblique splits i.e.

`split_axis=SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

. Normalization applied on the features, before applying the sparse oblique projections.

-`NONE`

: No normalization.

-`STANDARD_DEVIATION`

: Normalize the feature by the estimated standard deviation on the entire train dataset. Also known as Z-Score normalization.

-`MIN_MAX`

: Normalize the feature by the range (i.e. max-min) estimated on the entire train dataset.

#### sparse_oblique_num_projections_exponent#

**Type:**Real**Default:**2**Possible values:**min:0`split_axis=SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

. Controls of the number of random projections to test at each node as`num_features^num_projections_exponent`

.

#### sparse_oblique_projection_density_factor#

**Type:**Real**Default:**2**Possible values:**min:0`split_axis=SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

. Controls of the number of random projections to test at each node as`num_features^num_projections_exponent`

.

#### sparse_oblique_weights#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**BINARY**Possible values:**BINARY, CONTINUOUSFor sparse oblique splits i.e.

`split_axis=SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

. Possible values:

-`BINARY`

: The oblique weights are sampled in {-1,1} (default).

-`CONTINUOUS`

: The oblique weights are be sampled in [-1,1].

#### split_axis#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**AXIS_ALIGNED**Possible values:**AXIS_ALIGNED, SPARSE_OBLIQUEWhat structure of split to consider for numerical features.

-`AXIS_ALIGNED`

: Axis aligned splits (i.e. one condition at a time). This is the “classical” way to train a tree. Default value.

-`SPARSE_OBLIQUE`

: Sparse oblique splits (i.e. splits one a small number of features) from “Sparse Projection Oblique Random Forests”, Tomita et al., 2020.

#### uplift_min_examples_in_treatment#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**5**Possible values:**min:0For uplift models only. Minimum number of examples per treatment in a node.

#### uplift_split_score#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**KULLBACK_LEIBLER**Possible values:**KULLBACK_LEIBLER, KL, EUCLIDEAN_DISTANCE, ED, CHI_SQUARED, CS, CONSERVATIVE_EUCLIDEAN_DISTANCE, CEDFor uplift models only. Splitter score i.e. score optimized by the splitters. The scores are introduced in “Decision trees for uplift modeling with single and multiple treatments”, Rzepakowski et al. Notation:

`p`

probability / average value of the positive outcome,`q`

probability / average value in the control group.

-`KULLBACK_LEIBLER`

or`KL`

: - p log (p/q)

-`EUCLIDEAN_DISTANCE`

or`ED`

: (p-q)^2

-`CHI_SQUARED`

or`CS`

: (p-q)^2/q

#### validation_ratio#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.1**Possible values:**min:0 max:1Ratio of the training dataset used to create the validation dataset used to prune the tree. If set to 0, the entire dataset is used for training, and the tree is not pruned.

## DISTRIBUTED_GRADIENT_BOOSTED_TREES#

Exact distributed version of the Gradient Boosted Tree learning algorithm. See the documentation of the non-distributed Gradient Boosted Tree learning algorithm for an introduction to GBTs.

### Training configuration#

### Generic Hyper-parameters#

#### apply_link_function#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseIf true, applies the link function (a.k.a. activation function), if any, before returning the model prediction. If false, returns the pre-link function model output.

For example, in the case of binary classification, the pre-link function output is a logic while the post-link function is a probability.

#### force_numerical_discretization#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseIf false, only the numerical column safisfying “max_unique_values_for_discretized_numerical” will be discretized. If true, all the numerical columns will be discretized. Columns with more than “max_unique_values_for_discretized_numerical” unique values will be approximated with “max_unique_values_for_discretized_numerical” bins. This parameter will impact the model training.

#### max_depth#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**6**Possible values:**min:-1`max_depth=1`

means that all trees will be roots. Negative values are ignored.

#### max_unique_values_for_discretized_numerical#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**16000**Possible values:**min:1Maximum number of unique value of a numerical feature to allow its pre-discretization. In case of large datasets, discretized numerical features with a small number of unique values are more efficient to learn than classical / non-discretized numerical features. This parameter does not impact the final model. However, it can speed-up or slown the training.

#### maximum_model_size_in_memory_in_bytes#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1

#### maximum_training_duration_seconds#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1

#### min_examples#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**5**Possible values:**min:1Minimum number of examples in a node.

#### num_candidate_attributes#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**-1**Possible values:**min:-1`num_candidate_attributes=0`

, the value is set to the classical default value for Random Forest:`sqrt(number of input attributes)`

in case of classification and`number_of_input_attributes / 3`

in case of regression. If`num_candidate_attributes=-1`

, all the attributes are tested.

#### num_candidate_attributes_ratio#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1**Possible values:**min:-1 max:1`num_candidate_attributes = number_of_input_features x num_candidate_attributes_ratio`

. The possible values are between ]0, and 1] as well as -1. If not set or equal to -1, the`num_candidate_attributes`

is used.

#### num_trees#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**300**Possible values:**min:1Maximum number of decision trees. The effective number of trained tree can be smaller if early stopping is enabled.

#### pure_serving_model#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, false

#### random_seed#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**123456

#### shrinkage#

**Type:**Real**Default:**0.1**Possible values:**min:0 max:1Coefficient applied to each tree prediction. A small value (0.02) tends to give more accurate results (assuming enough trees are trained), but results in larger models. Analogous to neural network learning rate.

#### use_hessian_gain#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, falseUse true, uses a formulation of split gain with a hessian term i.e. optimizes the splits to minimize the variance of “gradient / hessian. Available for all losses except regression.

#### worker_logs#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**true**Possible values:**true, falseIf true, workers will print training logs.

## HYPERPARAMETER_OPTIMIZER#

### Training configuration#

### Generic Hyper-parameters#

#### maximum_model_size_in_memory_in_bytes#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1

#### maximum_training_duration_seconds#

**Type:**Real**Default:**-1

#### pure_serving_model#

**Type:**Categorical**Default:**false**Possible values:**true, false

#### random_seed#

**Type:**Integer**Default:**123456